As these characters became well known everywhere, dramatists could rely on their audience to respond to them in predictable fashion. All these factors combined to provide the dramatist with an opportunity to create a varied and exploratory new drama of outstanding interest.
There are, for example, records of a sacred drama in Egypt 2, years before the Common Era, and Thespis in the 6th century bce in ancient Greece is accorded the distinction of being the first known playwright.
The apparatus consisted of a dark chamber with a small aperture that let light in. Thus the Naturalistic movement in drama, though still not dead, had a short but vigorous life.
At least melodramas encouraged an expansion of theatre audiences ready for the most recent phase in dramatic history. This ritual aspect was lost when the Romans assimilated Greek tragedy and comedy. What is always missing in Asian drama is that restlessness for change characteristic of modern Western drama.
It tells us what a thing is, that a thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. Two elements are worth noting. Ideas may not be accepted if they are offered forthrightly; and great dramatists who are intent on furthering social or political ideas, such as Henrik IbsenGeorge Bernard Shawand Bertolt Brecht, quickly learned methods of having the spectators themselves reason the ideas as part of their response to the play.
Drama is a conventional game, and spectators cannot participate if the rules are constantly broken. When the Feast of Corpus Christi was instituted inthe great lay cycles of biblical plays the mystery plays and miracle cycles developed rapidly, eventually treating the whole story of humankind from the Creation to the Last Judgment, with the Crucifixion still the climax of the experience.
Quite untrammeled by realism, lyrical in tone and refined in feeling, his fanciful love and adventure stories completely justify their function as pure entertainment. In stylized and alliterative poetrythey mixed awesome events with moments of extraordinary simplicity, embodying local details, familiar touches of behaviour, and the comedy and the cruelty of medieval life.
The author must reckon with this circumstance. Certainly, the aural, kinetic, and emotive directives in verse are more direct than prose, though, in the hands of a master of prose dialogue like Shaw or Chekhov, prose can also share these qualities.
Thus, verse drama may embrace a wide variety of nonrealistic aural and visual devices: Only at the end of the 19th century, when naturalistic realism became the mode, were characters in dramas expected to speak as well as behave as in real life.
His plots are without the pain of reality, and his characters never descend from the ideal: Dramatists retained the moral tone of religious drama while using popular legendary stories to imbue their plays with a romantic and sometimes sensational quality.Dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance.
All plays depend upon a general agreement by all participants—author, actors, and audience—to accept the operation of theatre and the conventions associated with it, just as players.
Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. BC.
The alabaster mantle is modern.Download