If two things have exactly the same properties, then they are identical. Where Descartes seems to have erred is in assuming that he has a complete concept of minds and bodies.
The simplest interpretation of the effects of this operation is that even before the surgery there is a division of mental labor between the two spatially separated hemispheres.
There seems little doubt that while it is valid, this kind of argument is unsound. Thus, even though my great aunt Nancy is a spiritualist who believes that she, but not her physical body, will survive death, this does not prove that she is not identical with her body.
Thus, while we might agree that thinking is essential to minds, and extension is essential to bodies, it does not follow that "my essence consists solely in the fact that I am a thinking thing [or a substance whose whole essence or nature is to think]" Sixth Meditation, emphasis added unless Descartes knows that thinking and extension cannot both be properties of the same substance.
This seems correct, especially if one regards all statements of numerical identity as necessary truths. For example, many people who believe that Kareem Abdul Jabaar is a great basketball player do not also believe that Lew Alcindor is equally great; but Jabaar and Alcindor are the same person.
The evidence of neurophysiology strongly suggests that thoughts, memories, beliefs and other mental states are states of the physical brain; and brains can be divided into spatial parts. Most philosophers accept the Principle of the Indiscernibility of Identicals because it follows directly from the concept of numerical identity.
If two things are identical, they are one and the same thing; so, anything that is true of the first must be true of the second since there is really just one single thing that is being referred to in two different ways.
As it stands, the Doubt Argument is not valid since its conclusion does not follow logically from its premises. Descartes attempts to provide such a proof in his Divisibility Argument.
Bobbs-Merrill,page Admittedly, Descartes is correct in asserting that thoughts, memories, beliefs, and other mental states are not the sort of things that it makes sense to regard as being spatially extended; but the issue is whether the thing or substance that they are states of is extended.
Here is one version with some missing premises added and the references to God omitted. Similarly, Oedipus desired to marry Jocasta, but he did not desire to marry his mother. Assume that I can conceive that the evening star exists without the morning star also existing.
Like the Doubt Argument, it is subject to many interpretations. Premise 8 is a general principle that is often appealed to by philosophers in metaphysical discussions. The Divisibility Argument is thrown in almost as an afterthought.Rene Descartes' Argument from Divisibility is the argument in which he claims that the mind and the body are two completely different things and thus cannot be identical.
Descartes’ Arguments For Dualism In the Sixth Meditation and elsewhere in his writings, Descartes tries to prove that his thinking mind and his extended body are distinct substances.
I shall refer to these arguments as the Doubt Argument, the Conceivability Argument, and the Divisibility Argument. Descartes Conceivability Argument For Substance Dualism Philosophy Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: Kripke applies this to a brain state being identical to a mental state and tries to improve Descartes argument.
We are immediately subjectively aware of mental states. We have immediate perceptions of them inside me. In this essay I will outline Descartes’ main arguments, some of the criticisms of dualism, and my opinion as to which argument I perceive as the most convincing.
The first argument in Cartesian Dualism is the Argument from doubt. The Divisibility Argument - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
A presentation, explanation, and analysis of Descartes' Divisibility Argument AN ESSAY ON THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF OPERATIVE OCCULTISM - MANLY PALMER ultimedescente.com Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 5 6 Descartes.5 he is establishing divisibility.
Descartes’ arguments for distinguishing mind and body THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT In Meditation II, having argued that he knows he thinks, Descartes then asks what kind In this argument, Descartes doesn’t mean that God can miraculously create minds and Descartes argues that the mind is independent of the body (and so not the body).Download